Nazi Germany, December 13, 1942: Joseph Goebbels documents in his journal his frustration toward the Italian treatment of Jews at the time. He said that,

The Italians are extremely lax in their treatment of Jews. They protect Italian Jews both in Tunis and in occupied France and won’t permit their being drafted for work or compelled to wear the Star of David.”

Goebbels | AP Photo, File

Joseph Goebbels was the Reich Minister of Propaganda, both infamous and considered as some kind of dark genius of his time. After all, he played an essential part in convincing Germany to follow Hitler. As the war continued, he pushed and encouraged Hitler toward some of the iconic, brutal outcomes of the war — essentially shutting down a civilian Germany and completely diving headfirst into total war. His final, arguably most infamous and personal act happened on 1 May, 1945 when he and his wife killed themselves with cyanide, poisoning and murdering their six children as well. Had he lived, he would have been in charge of succeeding Hitler (which he technically did, for a day).

The Italians, under the scrutiny from Goebbels and the Nazi powers, pushed and passed antisemitic legislation in an effort to appease their Nazi allies. They instated rules that defined Jews, took them out of government infrastructure, banned marriage between Jews and others, took them out of the Italian military, imprisoned foreign Jews and removed them from the media entirely. These sound harsh, though maybe not in comparison to Germany, but the laws did not find the traction that Goebbels and other Nazis would have hoped. Without rigid enforcement, the laws didn’t have much teeth to sink in, much to Goebbels’ dismay. As the war progressed, Italy did deport many Jews to concentration or kill camps.