Note: This article is part of a series. You can read part one and part two here.

The modern Islamic terrorist movement is largely rooted in the collapse of the Ottoman Empire and the subsequent removal of the Caliph, the Islamic political-religious leader, in 1924. After the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, the more secular and progressive Republic of Turkey came into existence, seeking many modern social and economic reforms. This marked the beginning of a secularization and modernization period for the region as a whole.

The event resonated throughout the Islamic community as the Ottoman Caliph was the strongest entity in Islam at that time. In the vacuum of Islamic central authority that followed, the Muslim Brotherhood grew into formation. This type of formation, a fundamentalist reaction, is common during all times of rapid progress throughout the world and is caused by traditionalists attempting to resist change.

Simultaneously, Western powers, mainly the French and British, were exerting control over large sections of the Middle East after WWI. Many of the arbitrary borders they established split ethnic groups into incoherently formed states with deep social and ethnic divides. Those borders largely remained after Middle Eastern states gained their independence from European power.