According to a Congressional report, about 1,645 veterans lost limbs during the War on Terror years, causing bodily harm and lasting effects but also a heavy psychological burden. Not all veterans require prosthetics or even want them, but for the ones who do, innovations in this field cannot come soon enough. However, with more technology and complexity also comes an added risk of vulnerabilities, even more so for biomechanical prosthetics that are connected to the internet. For example, the prosthetic arm made by Motorica is part of an ever-growing industry called IoT or Internet of Things.

The arm is equipped with dedicated sensors that are connected to the skin, which read muscle contractions and analyze them to create movement of the robotic fingers. It is unwieldy and unnatural in the beginning, according to researchers, yet after some practice, it becomes like a natural extension.

Similar to other IoT devices, the arm sends data to the cloud to monitor movements, function and any anomalies. Similar to other IoT devices, there are countermeasures needed regarding vulnerabilities, which malicious actors can exploit.

In a paper published by Kaspersky Labs researcher Vladimir Dashchenko, vulnerabilities were discovered in the software of the biomechanical prosthetic arm.