The Battle of Saratoga was actually two separate battles that occurred in September and October 1777, during the American Revolution. The two crucial battles, fought 18 days apart, were decisive victories for the Continental Army and are widely considered as the crucial turning point in the Revolutionary War.

The Continental victory was the driving force for France to enter the conflict on the side of the Americans, convinced that they had an actual chance of winning their independence. And as a result, France gave loans, donations, weapons, and supplies to General George Washington’s Continental Army.  


British Pincers

The American Revolution had been ongoing for more than two years and the British government, having believed that they would crush the colonial farmers in the rebellion against the Crown easily, wanted to end the conflict quickly.

The British Army planned to split the New England colonies from the more Loyalist middle and southern colonies by moving an Army from Canada south through upstate New York. General John Burgoyne planned to move his men in a three-way pincer movement. The plan called for a northern pincer movement to move from Montreal, while the southern pincer was ordered up the Hudson River valley from New York City. The western pincer was ordered to march from Ontario into western New York along the Mohawk River. 

General William Howe moved his army towards Philadelphia from New York City, instead of turning towards Albany. Washington replaced Major General Phillip Schullyer with Horatio Gates in command of the Continental Army troops in Stillwater, NY. He also sent MG Benedict Arnold and MG Benjamin Lincoln north to join Gates. 

Battle of Freeman’s Farm. (


 The Polish Engineer

Gates’s army was growing by the day, as local commanders of the various militias were answering the call and joining. On September 7, Gates ordered his men north about 10 miles south of Saratoga to a strategic location known as Bemis Heights.