Broad Background of Ramadan

The holy month of Ramadan is a time meant to celebrate the revelation of the Quran to the Prophet Muhammad. The Quran itself is considered the biggest miracle in Islam as Muhammad was thought to be illiterate at the time that the word of God was revealed to him.  The obligatory observance of Ramadan has always been about fasting in order to inwardly realign oneself with God. Just as the Quran set Muhammad onto the path to submit to God, the observance of Ramadan is meant to realign Muslims back to the path of God. Muslims are supposed to refrain from worldly desires such as food, drink, and sexual intercourse during the holy month as a way to shun worldly evils. Praying and recitation of the Quran is also supposed to increase.

There are also Muslims that are allowed to bypass the obligatory observance of the month of Ramadan as the fasting could cause them bodily harm. Such as the elderly, sick, mentally ill, pregnant, breastfeeding, travelers, and those at war are able to choose whether or not they would like to refrain from fasting. Granted the “traveling” during the time that the Quran was written is quite different and some don’t consider hopping on a plane a reason not to fast. People that are considered to “be at war” were very much seen as those defending themselves from an attacking force.

Fighting during Ramadan

Historically, fighting during Ramadan was considered taboo. If you are a pious Muslim, you would be focusing on shedding your worldly desires and distractions rather than chasing after the spoils of war. Raiding villages was a means to generate profit in tribal society. However, a temporary halt in fighting between villages was usually observed during Ramadan. Even though this taboo existed, plenty of wars were fought during Ramadan. Islamic extremists also discovered that fighting during Ramadan could often give them an advantage over their enemy.

Reasons why Islamic extremist groups fight during Ramadan

  1. To surprise their enemy and catch them off-guard.
  2. To support the romanticized version of Islam that is used to recruit young fighters to al Qaeda or ISIS. To fight for a higher purpose other than themselves such as establishing the caliphate for ISIS.
  3. To get a chance at martyrdom which is a greater honor during Ramadan.
  4. To kill or injure non-believers and heretics as many extremist groups state that the rewards will be higher during the holy month.
  5. To seek elevated status, control, and legitimacy. ISIS seeks to be the the only religious and governing Islamic authority, therefore, they can control what they do during Ramadan without having serious religious opposition. This is probably the one of the most important reasons behind Ramadan attacks by ISIS.

Any reason for fighting during Ramadan takes away from the purpose of the holy month. Motivations have been shifted from being an inward reflection to an outward projection to the world. 

ISIS calls for violence during Ramadan