The 21st century is witnessing destructive and devastating urban warfare the world thought they would never see again after the Second World War. Brutal house-to-house fighting has taken place in various theaters in Eastern Europe and Ukraine.

Already witnessing primordial house-to-house fighting in Fallujah, Iraq, in 2003, military analysts were shocked by the evolution of urban warfare. Battles such as Aleppo, Mosul, Mariupol, Bakhmut, and recently in Gaza changed the face of urban warfare forever, and the doctrine of such grueling fighting can be analyzed today.

Battle of Aleppo 2016