Note: This is part of a series. You can read part one, part two, and part three here.

During the Vietnam War it became very clear that the U.S. military needed to revise their hand-to-hand training. This was particularly apparent amongst SOF units, especially Army Special Forces, LRRPs, and Navy SEALs; each often sent their people in small teams deep into enemy territory for extended periods of time.

These types of missions required not just CQB, but silent, quick killing techniques, typically with the knife, garrote, or bare hands. But, again, training remained “flavor of the month” and dependent upon traditional Asian martial arts systems and trial and error lessons learned on operations in the field. SF veteran Joe Lenhart said in the 1960s, “In SF, if you were around the Hawaiians, you had the opportunity to learn some good MA.”

This is testament to three things. One, the need to tap martial arts talents within units, amongst the ranks, even in SF. Two, the underlying ignorance of, or unfamiliarity with, established Army hand-to-hand training and programming. And three, the richness of Hawaiian martial arts culture, which was due mostly to the Japanese diaspora in the 1920s that scattered Japanese across the U.S. West Coast, Hawaii, and South America.

The Gracies, founders of BJJ, benefited from that scattering. Jerry Powell, another SF veteran, said, “In Training Group in 1963, and subsequently in the 5th Group, any hand-to-hand training that I saw was pretty much on my own time.” Tom Marzullo, SF veteran said of his time in SF Training Group in 1969, “Hand-to-hand was absent during my SF time and I was deeply disappointed.” In wartime, in all militaries, even in SOF units, training is changed and bars are raised and lowered to meet the manpower needs of the engaged units.

Historically, hand-to-hand training has been one of those things that has always been reduced or cut in order to get more troops trained faster and off to the fight. Another factor of that time was culture and how boys were raised. According to SF veteran Joe Lenhart:

Like many or even most (boys) my age (late 60s), we grew up wrestling and boxing with towels wrapped around our fists, had rival school “meetings” every now and then, and there was the county fair that…usually escalated into a scuffle or three. Thing is, back then, when it was over, it was over, at least for a while. Maybe a broken nose, shiner, busted lip, or jammed finger or so was about as bad as it got, except for a few bruised egos. But when the city boys got involved, there would be a couple switch blades and chains produced only to be met with pitchforks and corn cutters and a ball bat or two. Those engagements did not last very long.”

The point is, back in those days, few boys entered adulthood having not been in at least a few fights. American boys in the past fought and wrestled more growing up, like wolves and other wild animals, and thus were more acclimated and prepared, especially mentally, for hand-to-hand combat. American culture has changed in that respect.