Israel and Iran are in a state of Cold War, and both countries have conducted a shadow war across various regions over the past several decades. Initially, allies when Iran’s monarchy ruled the nation, both states could potentially cause the largest war in the Middle East’s modern history.

Avoiding a large-scale war for now, both Tehran and Tel Aviv have resorted to a shadow conflict with Iran using various proxies and Israel fermenting relations with Arab countries that are hostile to the Islamic Republic.

The Israeli-Iranian shadow war has consequences for the Middle East. It has also reached the South Caucasus and Mediterranean, drawing in significant powers such as the United States and Russia.