The United Nations recently passed its strongest sanctions yet against North Korea following its sixth nuclear test. But critics have expressed doubts as to whether the sanctions would stop Pyongyang from developing nuclear weapons and if the measures would be effectively enforced.

The US government and a UN experts panel have published reports on how North Korea evades sanctions to earn the hard currency it needs.

Here are eight of the methods used:

1. Swapping goods

North Korea directly exchanges its coal and other minerals for the goods it needs, such as weapons components and even luxury items. This avoids the risk of money transfers being traced.

A resolution passed by the UN Security Council last November set a cap on North Korea’s coal exports, which generate a significant share of the country’s revenue.


Read the whole story from South China Morning Post.