Largely overshadowed by the war in Ukraine, Syria remains a deeply divided and violent country, where military conflict has recently reignited.

This new period of conflict in Syria, with Russia, Turkey and Israel all launching attacks, also reflects some of the battle lines of the Ukrainian war – and threatens to have ramifications for both battlegrounds.

After more than a decade of war, there are already significant numbers of Russian, US and Turkish forces on the ground in Syria. Russia backs the regime of president Bashar al-Assad, and the US and Turkey support their own rival local allies.

A highly combustible mix of local, regional, and global security risks have evolved over the past decade in Syria and has been exacerbated by the war in Ukraine. Global and regional forces have been a significant factor, while Russia used the war to illustrate to the world its military strength.