Long before becoming one of the world’s largest economic powerhouse, South Korea was part of an impoverished and stagnant peninsula that had been under the grip of the Japanese Empire until 1945. When Japan surrendered following the devastating aftermath of the Hiroshima bombing, Korea was among the territories they had let go of and handed to the victorious Allied Powers led by Soviet-American forces. However, the peninsula’s occupation turnover was marred by tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union that would then escalate due to a clash of ideologies—one wanting to establish a free, independent Korean government, while the other pushed for communism.

Many citizens living in the south have been keen on the democratic government the US has introduced, highlighting that it would be the most efficient way to revive the country’s economy. On the other hand, communist ideology has been spreading like wildfire in the north, and while the US and Soviets agreed on dividing the peninsula, known as the 38th parallel, Koreans have their own unification ambitions.

Representing the north, Kim Il Sung rose to prominence with his ambition to establish a communist government called the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) across the peninsula. Meanwhile, nationalist exile Syngman Rhee, upon returning to Korea, voiced out his intentions of organizing a government in line with American democratic principles, known today as the Republic of Korea (ROK). With their own ideologies, each wanted to rule the entire peninsula, and with talks becoming ineffective and unproductive, the north finally pulled the trigger and launched a coordinated attack against the south—officially breaching the peace. The war on June 25, 1950, lasted for three long, bloody years, with millions of lives lost that further tore the relationship between the north and south, each side loathing the other.

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Marine Patrol in Korea, 1950 (Image source: National Archives)

The south was at the losing end at one point. The entire region would almost have its head bowed down to the communist north if it wasn’t for the international coalition led by the United States coming to the rescue. Also known as the United Nations Command (UNC), it was the first organized global unified command in history that would assist the south as the north received military support from its communist brethren: the Soviet Union and China.